Many African countries didn’t enter stage 2 until the late 1950’s due to the medical revolution. Ethnic groups may live in particular regions of the country, and they may live in particular neighborhoods within cities. Religious values are important in understanding not only how people identify themselves, as was the case with language, but also the meaningful ways that they organize the landscape. Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population. When a country enters stage 4, it has in a sense completed a cycle. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and … A decline in the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. Industrial Revolution- A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. “White Flight”: “White Flight” comes from the Brown vs. Board of Education doctrine in 1954, which eliminated segregation. k Geography. ... AP Human Geography Spring 2017. There is a new time zone ever 15 degrees longitude. Regions Formal (uniform) Functional (nodal) Vernacular (perceptual) Culture: Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a group of people in tradition Hearth: Where an idea originates Acculturation: The spread of cultural traits from one society to another Globalization of Culture: Globalization due to interchanging beliefs and customs Globalization of Economy: Globalization due to business Reference Maps: Regular maps showing cities, boundaries, mountains, or roads Thematic Maps: Maps highlighting a particular feature or a single variable such as temperature, city, size, or acreage in potatoes (Gives extra information) Isoline Maps: Show lines that connect points of equal value; Isolines are on topographic maps Choropleth Maps: Show the level of some variable within predefined regions, such as counties, states, or countries Dot Maps: Use a dot to represent the occurrence of some phenomenon in order to depict variation in density in a given area Cartograms: Maps that have distorted population Resolution: The amount of details or depth of a map Scale: Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface The three main types of scales are ratio (fraction) scales, bar scales, and written scales Small Scale: Depicts a large area (such as the state of Arizona) but with less detail Large Scale: Depicts a small area (such as downtown Phoenix) with great detail Cartography: The science of making maps Projection: The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map The most common type is the Robinson Projection However, maps depicting the entire world can distort shape, distance, relative size, and direction Toponym: The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface Has to be a natural feature Site: The physical character of a place Situation: The location of a place relative to other places (relative location) Meridian: An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles (longitude) The two main meridians are the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line Parallel: A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians (latitude) Time Zones: There are four major time zones in the United States (Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific). China- By 5000 BC there were many agricultural communities spread throughout what is now China. Mesoamerica eventually went into a subsistence pattern based on the cultivation of plants. European Union: A cooperation under the economic category Promotes development through economic cooperation (free trade, Euro, subsidizing) Sovereignty: Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states Development: Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year) Gross National Product (GNP): Similar to GDP, except that it includes income that people earn abroad, such as a Canadian working in the United States Human Development Index (HDI): Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy Job Types (Sectors): Primary- extracting from Earth (agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry) Secondary- manufacturing raw materials- taking something from the land and making it a product Tertiary- Services, Banking, Retailing, Education Rostow’s Stages of Development Model: Rostow, in the 1950’s, made a 5 stage model of the international trade development approach. This caused a jump in the worlds' population in the late 1700's and helped send England into stage 2 of the Industrial Revolution: ... the Industrial Revolution. The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture. A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. The sudden population boom was caused by the industrial revolution which began in England in the late 18th century. Example- In Sub-Saharan Africa, drought, poverty, and disease (mainly AIDS) are reducing life expectancy. Human Population . Popular culture diffuses rapidly across Earth to locations with a variety of physical conditions. Examples - International Migration- Moving to Russia from the United States, or from Africa to Australia. Does not have to grow in numbers. Lots of subsistence farms grow things like tomatoes, corn, potatoes, cucumbers, and spinach. Many plantations farm rubber, pine, spruce, and eucalyptus trees, oil palm, cotton, tea, and tobacco. CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. Around 5500BC hunting was mostly replaced by domesticating animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats, as well as growing cereal grains. Epidemiologic Transition- Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition. The US evacuated from Saigon several thousand people who had been closely identified with the American position during the war and who were therefore vulnerable to persecution after the Communist victory. Forced migration- the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors. It allowed segregation of Blacks, Jews, and Roman Catholics. Involved major improvements in ... medical revolution in America and Europe diffused to developing countries. Tags: Question 38 . This is the scientific study of characteristics of population, The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support, A portion of earth's surface occupied permanently by human settlement., This English economist that argued that population will increase geometrically rather than arithmetically. Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people. Intervening Obstacles Immigrants may not always get to there destination because of an environmental or cultural obstacle. Some subsistence farms also have livestock. The historic high was in 1989 with 87 million. Ö Crude death rate (CDR)- total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day. Crude Birth Rate- The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Millions of people were captured and shipped to many different countries as prisoners or slaves. Subsistence Agriculture: Self-sufficient, small in scale, low technology, Food production for local consumption- not for trade or sale Some are confined to small fields- very likely they do not own the soil they till Small fields-share cropper, low end money pull for agriculture Can promote cohesiveness within society, share land, food surpluses, personal wealth is restricted Cultivators are poor but free Subsistence farming is growing enough food for one person and their family. Usually promises a better situation than the present one. Rust Belt and Sun Belt Intraregional migration- movement within on region International Migration: Divided into two types- Voluntary migration- implies that migrant has chosen to move for economic improvements. Agricultural Revolution: Burst of population growth around 8000 B.C. Medical revolution: Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. This caused industrialization in communities. The population is bigger than the amount of arable land-which causes more than half of the children to be under-nourished or mal-nourished. Infant Mortality Rate- The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society. This region ranges from Monaco to Russia. The largest desert region is the Sahara. Oceans and lakes are an obstacle in migration because people are unable to cross the bodies of water. Several medical advances were made during this time as well. Nearly all are islands in the Pacific Ocean or Caribbean Sea State Shapes: Compact State- a state in which the distance form the center to any boundary does not vary significantly Fragmented State- a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory Elongated State- a state with a long, narrow shape Prorupted State- an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension Perforated State- a state that completely surrounds another one Boundaries: Can see on a map: Physical- natural boundaries (oceans, rivers, mountains) Geometric- main official lines Can’t see on a map: Culture Religious Language Federal State: An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government (have a say so) Centripetal forces Example- US Unitary State: An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials (not necessarily bad, but no say so- only government) Centrifugal forces Example- UK United Nations: A cooperation under the political category; Deals with military, economic, agricultural, etc. Census- A complete enumeration of a population. South Asia: Another one fifth of the world’s population lives in south Asia. The development of states can be traced to the ancient Middle East, in an area known as the Fertile crescent. 6 > ? Fertility: TFR total fertility rate- the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49). Q. = > | Š ‹ ' ( U W z Š ‹ î ÷ ø j u v œ § ¨ Ñ × Ø d p q ´ À Á İ è óëáÖʼ´Ö´Ö´Ö´Ö´ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«Ö´ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ«ÖÊ h•- 5�CJ aJ h•- CJ aJ hh­ h•- 5�>*CJ aJ hh­ h•- 5�CJ aJ hh­ h•- CJ aJ hh­ h•- 5�>* hh­ h•- 5�hh­ h•- 5�CJ aJ C - O P • – ñ ò < = Y Z t � ” § ± È â

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